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How can small-scale energy systems be designed to maximize the conversion of locally available renewable energy resources, minimize environmental impact, and serve needs for electricity, heat, cooling, pure water, and other energy products and services in a cost-efficient manner? How can disparate energy conversion components be integrated to form a synergetic whole?

Houses with solar cells on their roofs.
Photo: Jeremy Bezanger on Unsplash

Keywords: membrane distillation, thermal energy storage, energy in industry, electric/hybrid drive train technologies, electrochemical storage, agriculture, prime movers, system integration, off/on grid, small scale.