Skip to main content

The Clean Cooking Explorer platform for Nepal

Energy for cooking is considered essential in achieving modern energy access. Despite this, almost 2.4 billion people still lack access to clean cooking, most of them living in rural areas of industrializing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, developing Asia and parts of central- and south-America. In order to mitigate the shortcomings of clean cooking solutions, traditional energy sources tend to be used which can be harmful for the people using them. This project aims at creating a spatial platform for clean cooking for Nepal in order to leverage geospatial data to represent the different resources and characteristics of the region, and support targeted development of clean cooking solutions.

Background

IEA estimates that in developing Asia (excluding India and China), 0.6 million people die due to household air pollution caused by the use of non-modern cooking solutions yearly. Furthermore, the collection of traditional fuels tends to be either costly or time consuming and in many instances the burden of fuel collection falls on children and women. Reaching universal access to clean cooking solutions is part of SDG 7 (indicator 7.1.2 Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology). SDG 7 has previously been connected to a large number of the other SDGs. By reducing the rate of under the age of five mortality rate and reducing the rate of early deaths due to air pollution clean cooking can contribute to SDG3 (Health and wellbeing). By alleviating women and children from the burden of fuel collection it can contribute towards SDG5 (gender equality). Furthermore, it can contribute to SDG 13 (climate action) and SDG15 (reducing deforestation).

Nepal is a country with a population of approximately 28 million people. The country is divided into three broad geographical regions: high mountains in the north, middle mountains (Pahad) and Tarai (the southern belt of plains land). Administratively, Nepal is divided into 7 provinces, 77 districts, 6 metropolitan cities, 11 sub-metropolitan cities, 276 urban municipalities (Nagar Palika), and 460 rural municipalities.

The Clean Cooking Alliance estimates that approximately 80% of the rural population in the country rely on solid fuels for cooking and that 18,000 people die yearly due to related Household Air Pollutants stemming from the use of traditional fuels in combination with poor ventilation. Around 30% of the population rely on clean fuel options, viz. LPG, biogas, electricity for cooking. The Government of Nepal has launched an initiative to provide Clean Cooking Solution for All (CCS4ALL) and the Alternative Energy Promotion Center has together with the World Bank developed a roadmap to reach this goal. Nepal has a large potential of biogas as raw materials are abundantly available in the country. Through the Rural Energy Policy of 2006, Renewable Energy Subsidy Policy of 2016 and the Biomass Energy Strategy of 2017, the GoN has promoted the use of biogas energy technologies opening up the use for wider use of these fuels for cooking purposes. Nepal has been successful in implementing/disseminating various clean cookstoves solutions such as improved cook stoves (1.3 million-plus ICS), biogas plants (400,000), and around solar cookers (600). Nevertheless, the progress for achieving the full access to clean cooking fuels is still a daunting task.

Nepal does not have fossil reserves. Traditional biomass, imported fossil (coal and oil products), electricity are its main sources of the total primary energy supply. Renewable resources also vary across the regions/provinces. Himalayan and middle mountains have higher forest cover compared to the plain Terai region. Similarly, the forest cover of province 2 has the lowest forest (i.e. 27%) compared to province 7 (56%). Nepal has around 78% access to the national grid. It differs within the 7 provinces. For example, province 3 has around 90% electricity whereas province 6 has only 27% grid electricity access.

This background shows 1) how it is crucial to move from traditional ways of cooking energy access, and 2) how the decisions to achieve one will need to have a geospatial component to represent the different resources and characteristics by region. To achieve that, this project aims at creating a spatial platform for clean cooking in Nepal building upon on the extensive experience of the applicant group in geospatial energy access planning, clean cooking, and the Nepalese energy context.

Aim and objectives

  • Select the key technologies used for cooking in Nepal - including their key technological performances
  • Create an open database of geospatial data relevant to the comparison of cooking solutions in Nepal
  • Building up from the existing methods of the Open Source Spatial Electrification Tool (OnSSET) (KTH-dES, 2020) - a method developed at KTH - create open-source methods to geospatially collect and compare cooking alternatives
  • Create an open-source visualization platform for the results leveraging the open-source code available from WRI’s Energy Access Explorer
  • Compare geospatially the performances of different cooking solutions including costs per household and region, impacts on the local supply chain, and environmental impacts on local forest and emissions. This will include short and long-term scenario analysis for different combinations of cooking solutions for the country.
  • Support decision making process on clean cooking policies.
  • Train local stakeholders on the use of the platform.

Project partners

KTH

Kartoza

Nepal Open University

Funding is provided by Clean Cooking Alliance and World Resource Institute

Timeframe: 2021-2022

Researchers

For further information about this project, please contact Camilo Ramirez  and Babak Khavari .

Camilo Ramirez Gomez
Camilo Ramirez Gomez
doctoral student
Babak Khavari
Babak Khavari
Francesco Fuso-Nerini
Francesco Fuso-Nerini
associate professor

Publications

  1. Access the Clean Cooking Explorer for Nepal at: cleancookingexplorer.org/

Smart City Concepts in Curitiba: Low-carbon Transport and Mobility in a Digital Society
Urban Circularity Assessment Framework
The interface of sustainability science and bioenergy systems
Using the sustainable development goals for shaping holistic energy programs, projects and policies
The Clean Cooking Explorer platform for Nepal
Geospatial Analysis and Electrification Investment Scenario Preparation for Yemen
Capacity building on geospatial electrification analysis for industrializing countries
Capturing emissions in least-cost electrification planning
Assessment of the potential for battery storage to provide affordable electricity access through solar PV mini-grids in West Africa
Mwinda Project: Data-driven solutions for people-centered electrification in the DRC
Preparation of an Indicative Least Cost Geospatial Electrification Plan To Achieve Universal Access In Somalia
Preparation of an Indicative Least Cost Geospatial Electrification Plan to Achieve Universal Access in Benin
World Energy Outlook 2019
Least-cost electrification Pathways for Benin
The Global Electrification Platform
Least-cost electrification Pathways for Madagascar
The UNECE nexus assessment of the Drin River Basin
SIM4NEXUS
Climate, Land and Energy Analytical study of Potential Nexus Issues in Jordan and Morocco
OPM Ethiopia project “Energy system development pathways in Ethiopia”
National energy planning and policy support for the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals
Bio-based circular model for sustainable urban economies
Chemical Recycling for Circular Flows of Plastic Waste
African Power Pool Modelling
Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in different development contexts: a systems approach
Assessing the Water-Land-Energy-Food Nexus in trans-boundary river basins
BioGreenBaltic
Bioethanol strategy for Indonesia
Biogas based poly-generation for rural development in Bangladesh
Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) in China’s power plants
Climate Vulnerability of African Countries (completed projects)
Cost optimal pathways for the Cypriot energy system
Country level CLEWs
Developing an electricity supply model for Cyprus
Development of long-term energy projections for African countries
Development of the Model Management Infrastructure (MoManI) interface
Electricity Access in the Brazilian Amazon
Electrification paths for developing countries
Energy systems-CGE modelling Link up for pilot countries
Energy Systems Analysis Agency
Estimating Investment Needs for the Power Sector in the Africa Region
Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden
Global CLEWs model (completed projects)
INSIGHT_E: An energy think tank informing the European Commission
INSISTS Sustainable Bioenergy Development in Indonesia
Nexus assessment of the North West Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS)
Open Geospatial Data for Energy Access
OpeN Source Spatial Electrification Toolkit (ONSSET)
Oskarshamn CLEWs
Providing rural energy access in developing countries
REEEM
Renewable energy mapping for Africa
Robust Energy and Climate Indicators for the Steel Industry
SAMBA
About the project
Urban Smart Grids in Brazil
Supporting the Design of Sustainable Development Policies with Policy Modelling Tools
SweGRIDS
The Development of Bioethanol Markets under Sustainability Requirements
The Electricity Model Base for Africa (TEMBA)
CO2 Emissions and Energy Efficiency in Sweden
Uganda 100% Renewable by 2050
About the project
Wireless Bus Stop Charging